Договоры об ипотеке под 10% содержат немало нюансов

Важные нюансы
«доступной» ипотеки

Еще в начале года заем на покупку жилья можно было взять под 18-20%, а с июля в Украине несколько банков – государственных и частных – уже выдают ипотеку под 9-10%. Недорогой кредит должен сделать жилье более доступным. Но не совсем понятно, где банки возьмут так называемые длинные деньги, чтобы выдавать дешевые кредиты на 10-20 лет. Ведь основной источник для кредитования – депозиты, а их чаще всего оформляют лишь на год.

Доступной ипотеки не будет? В НБУ недовольны продлением моратория на взыскание жилья

Впрочем, получить ипотеку все равно нелегко: наученные прошлым кризисом, финансовые учреждения требуют гарантий. Предоставить все необходимые подтверждения может далеко не каждый украинец.

«Реалии таковы, что ипотеку может взять не каждый гражданин. Может быть, это и правильно, потому что когда мы кредитовали, активное кредитование было с 2005-го по 2008-й, кредит, как говорится, выдавался всем, у кого есть пульс. Сегодня выдают кредиты, только если у вас белая зарплата», – рассказывает риелтор Алена.

И это, конечно же, не единственное условие. Но обо всем по порядку. Формально ипотеку под 10% начали давать еще в марте. Но занимался этим один-единственный банк. Он прекратил выдачу с началом карантина, а в апреле ее возобновил, рассказывает замглавы правления Семен. Всего ипотек раздали на 55 млн гривен, что в масштабах страны, конечно, не так много.

«Продукт у нас на 20 лет. Ставка – 9,99%, первый взнос – от 25%. Мы берем разовую комиссию в размере 3%, и клиент ежегодно обязан платить страховку за залог. Стоимость такой страховки – примерно 0,3% в год», – рассказывает он об условиях.

Іпотека під 10%: Зеленський пообіцяв «дотиснути» банки

В этом банке говорят, что ипотечные займы выдали почти 70% обратившихся. Отказывали соискателям с неофициальными доходами и плохой кредитной историей.

«Чистая кредитная история очень важна. Многим отказываем из-за этой категории. Есть много кредитов, по которым клиенты и не знали, что брали кредиты, с их слов. Это все последствия предыдущих лет, с 2008 года, когда начался кризис и клиенты не смогли обслуживать свои долги», – объясняет эксперт.

Ипотеку дают только под уже возведенное жилье – никаких недостроев, так как риски слишком высокие. Особенно учитывая последние события с «Укрбудом», который заморозил все свои объекты. Да и в целом полное отсутствие гарантий для инвесторов на первичном рынке. Брать в залог воздух банкиры не хотят. А как еще назвать пустое место или пусть даже построенный каркас многоэтажки при отсутствии у вкладчиков права собственности?

«Если во всех развитых странах мира, когда вы покупаете у застройщика квартиру – квартиру, а не квадратные метры, – ваши имущественные права сразу фиксируются в реестре недвижимого имущества, то у нас такого нет. Поэтому и банки не хотят кредитовать. У вас очень высокий риск, что застройщик просто его не достроит», – объясняет Алена.

Допомогти інвесторам «Укрбуду»: Кличко закликає скасувати сплату пайової участі на об’єкти «Укрбуду»

Вообще инвестирование в строительство – сплошной законодательный пробел. Попасть в ипотечные программы имеют шанс только крупные строительные компании с безупречной репутацией и собственными оборотными средствами. Таких даже в Киеве меньше десятка. И квадратные метры от них заметно дороже. Те же, кто строят экономжилье, финансируют его отчасти за счет вкладчиков. Денежных запасов нет. Лотерея чистой воды.

Известный столичный застройщик уверен, что мониторинг банкиров такие компании не пройдут.

«Не так все это просто. Поймите правильно, банк дал ипотеку, а застройщик не достроил. И дальше что? Все эти застройщики – они, конечно, малобюджетные, у них денег своих нет. Значит, они должны находить тех, кто гарантирует им оплату достроя… Какой-то соинвестор, какая-то страховая компания, которая готова застраховать этот риск», – рассказывает он.

И добавляет: финучреждения требовательны не только к стройкомпаниям, но и к потенциальным заемщикам. Государственный банк, с которым он сотрудничает, выдает только по два-три кредита в месяц. Ведь большинство заемщиков не могут подтвердить доходы документами.

Сами застройщики более лояльны, получить у них рассрочку значительно проще. Однако дают ее преимущественно до ввода дома в эксплуатацию. Это три года от закладки фундамента. А значит, нужно платить большие суммы ежемесячно, их не осилит большинство рядовых украинцев.

А теперь главная загвоздка новой ипотеки! Ставку в 10% банки фиксируют лишь на пять лет. Далее она становится плавающей. То есть может возрастать.

«Фиксация сегодня ставки возможна на 3-5 лет, не больше. Далее возникает плавающая ставка, которая напрямую зависит от совокупного показателя средней ставки по депозитам первых 20 банков Украины. На текущий момент эта ставка относительно низкая. Но как будет осенью, или в следующем году, или через пять лет, пока достаточно тяжело прогнозировать… По пессимистическим прогнозам, ставка через 5 лет может быть в районе 15-17%. Это то, что в среднем мы наблюдали, если посмотрим последние несколько лет», – рассказывает банкир Руслан.

И фиксация на 5 лет – это, оказывается, еще не худший вариант! Сюрприз ждет в государственном банке, который только-только присоединился к программе и должен стать драйвером дешевой ипотеки. Вместо этого он предлагает сыграть в лотерею. Там ипотеку в 10% дают лишь на год, а потом ставка будет изменяться и за несколько лет может достигнуть 15%. К тому же каждый год придется платить дополнительные 4%. В итоге ипотека выходит никак не под 10%.

Як довго треба збирати на власне житло. Статистика по містам (ІНФОГРАФІКА)

И еще нюанс: чтобы подстраховаться, банкиры могут потребовать дополнительного залога. И могут оценить имущество на 10% ниже его рыночной стоимости.

Тем временем в Кабмине продолжают настаивать, что ипотека под 10% в скором времени охватит всю страну. представитель профильной ассоциации Елена добавляет: чем больше первый взнос, тем меньше ставка.

«Мы проводили много правительственных совещаний, раскладывали всю ставку по кредитам на составляющие: сколько должны заплатить в Фонд гарантирования, какой аппетит банка… Если первичный взнос 40%, тогда 8% годовая ставка, если 30% – то 9%», – говорит она.

И банки, которые предлагают такие условия, действительно есть. Впрочем, ипотека все равно остается слишком дорогой по сравнению с Западной Европой или США. Если брать квартиру в кредит на 20 лет, переплатить придется минимум в 2,5 раза. А если согласиться на плавающую ставку, можно вообще не вылезти из долгов.

Впервые в истории: ипотека в США упала ниже 3%

И тем не менее для многих украинцев ипотека – это единственный шанс купить собственное жилье. Однако перед тем, как ставить подпись, следует внимательно изучить содержание договора и учесть риски.

Напомним, ранее Национальный банк Украины (НБУ) снизил учетную ставку до исторического рекорда в 6%. Это сигнал для определения процентных ставок по вкладам и займам. Об уменьшении стоимости кредитов банки пока молчат, но вот ставки по депозитам уже снижают.

Поставщик электроэнергии для населения заявил о риске банкротства 

 и ребрендинге украинского производителя 

Источник:
segodnya

 
Источник

от Admin

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